Updating the rna polymerase ctd code

This coupling of transcription and associated processes has been shown to be dependent on a particular feature of RNAPII, the C-terminal repeat domain or CTD [2].

Small nuclear RNAs (sn RNAs) play key roles in splicing and some of them, specifically the U1 and U2 sn RNAs, are encoded by multicopy sn RNA gene clusters containing tandem arrays of genes, about 30 in the RNU1 cluster (Bernstein et al.

Recent discoveries of new modifications, kinases, and binding proteins have challenged previously established paradigms.

In this paper, we examine results and implications of recent studies related to modifications of the CTD and the respective enzymes; we also survey characterizations of new CTD-binding proteins and their associated processes and new information regarding known CTD-binding proteins.

We have shown how capping is directed to nascent Pol2 transcripts via physical interactions of one or more of the capping enzymes with the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the Pol2 Rpb1 subunit.

The Pol2 CTD consists of tandemly repeated heptapeptides of consensus sequence Y GTase (Pce1) bound to Ser5-phosphorylated Pol2 CTD ligands illuminated how eukarya take divergent structural routes to achieve GTase•CTD interaction.

Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1.

Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes.

Thus, capping enzymes from different taxa have evolved unique strategies to read the same Pol2 CTD code.Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) not only synthesizes m RNA but also coordinates transcription-related processes via its unique C-terminal repeat domain (CTD).The CTD is an RNAPII-specific protein segment consisting of repeating heptads with the consensus sequence Y that has been shown to be extensively post-transcriptionally modified in a coordinated, but complicated, manner.RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes all m RNAs and many non-coding RNAs (1,2).Pol II consists of 12 subunits and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of Pol II, Rpb1, is important for transcriptional activation.

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